The series of measures, which helped to mitigate the short-term social and economic consequences of the crisis while paving the way for effective medium- and long-term strategies, entailed spending of approximately €2,050m. (an increase of 21.9% compared with 2019). In terms of structural improvements to SMEs, which underpin the Luxembourg economy, capital grants increased by €142.7m. compared with 2019, while investment expenditure rose by €301.8m. (26.2% higher than in 2019). Social beneﬁts grew by an even higher proportion, increasing by 88.6% between June 2019 and June 2021 (an increase of €797.6m.).