Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History (C²DH) – University of Luxembourg – 162a, avenue de la Faïencerie – L-1511 Luxembourg (LUXEMBOURG) – Tel.: +352 46 66 44 1 –

Editorial Director: Andreas Fickers, Director of the C²DH (

Editor in Chief: Isabelle Voegeli

Managing Editor: Noëlle Schon

Coordinator for Contemporary European history and scientific publications: Frédéric Clavert

Coordinator for Contemporary history of Luxembourg: Dominique Santana

Coordinator for Public History: Marco Gabellini

Coordinator for Digital history & historiography: Florentina Armaselu

Coordinator for DTU: Tim van der Heijden

Editor for Social Media: Benjamin Zenner

Technical advisor: Lars Wieneke


This site is hosted by the University of Luxembourg.


Terms of use

Consultation of this site is subject to the terms and conditions set out below.

By consulting the pages of this site, you agree to respect these terms and conditions.

You are solely responsible for the selection, use and interpretation of the data which you consult, search and transmit on the Internet.

The C²DH reserves the right to modify this legal notice at any time. By using this site, you agree to abide by the terms of use set out in the most recent version of the legal notice available on the website at the time of use.


All the information available on the website is protected by copyright. Unless otherwise indicated, reproduction of texts from this site for non-commercial purposes and especially in educational situations is permitted, subject to the following three conditions being met:

  • Free dissemination;
  • Respect for the integrity of the reproduced documents: no modification or alteration of any kind;
  • Explicit mention of the site as a source and statement that the rights of reproduction are reserved and limited.

Any exception to these rules shall be subject to the prior written approval of the University of Luxembourg and the author of the website content.

Photographic credits: unless otherwise stated, the photographs on this website are protected by copyright and are the property of the University of Luxembourg.

Content provided by the C²DH is not necessarily comprehensive, exhaustive, accurate or up to date. If, despite our best efforts, errors were to be found, the C²DH may not be held responsible. The C²DH would nevertheless appreciate being informed of any such errors.

Policy regarding links

Links to external websites or other sources do not constitute a recommendation or guarantee on the part of the C²DH regarding their content, which remains the exclusive responsibility of their authors.

The C²DH is happy to authorise any website (source site) to insert, for non-commercial purposes, a hyperlink to the home page of the site or to one of its inner pages (sites or target pages), provided that:

  • the source site does not disseminate information of a political, religious, pornographic or xenophobic nature or which might offend the sensibilities of others;
  • the target page of the site does not launch in a frame as part of the source site but in a new window.

The C²DH reserves the right to refuse this permission.

The C²DH would appreciate being informed by e-mail ( of the creation of any links to the site

Data protection

  • Pursuant to the Luxembourg Act of 2 August 2002 on the protection of individuals with respect to the processing of personal data (Loi du 2 août 2002 relative à la protection des personnes à l’égard du traitement des données à caractère personnel – see, you have a right to access, amend and delete any data concerning you. You may exercise this right by sending a message to
  • The data collected on our site stem exclusively from personal information provided on a voluntary basis, for example when you subscribe to our newsletter.
  • This site uses Google Analytics, a website analysis service provided by Google Inc. (“Google”). “Google Analytics uses cookies, which are text files placed on your computer, to help the website analyse how users use the site. The information generated by the cookies about your use of the website (including your IP address) will be transmitted to and stored by Google on servers in the United States. Google will use this information for the purpose of analysing your use of the website, compiling reports on website activity for the website operator and providing other services relating to the use of the website and the Internet. Google may also transmit this information to third parties where required to do so by law, or where such third parties process the information on behalf of Google, including in particular the operator of this website. Google will not associate your IP address with any other data held by Google. You can disable cookies by selecting the appropriate settings on your browser. However, disabling cookies may prevent the use of certain functionalities of the website. By using this website, you explicitly consent to the processing of your data by Google in the manner and for the purposes set out above.”

Applicable law and attribution of jurisdiction

Luxembourg law is applicable and the courts of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg have exclusive jurisdiction over any dispute regarding this site.